Curated, Annotated Bibliography

  Medical Thinking

Hypertension is an idiopathic disease (unknown origin), identified when a person’s measured blood
pressure is higher than desirable (using criteria from the American College of Cardiology).

  Systems Biology

Hypertension is one phase of inflammatory vascular disease, largely resulting from inflammatory
infiltration of the lining of arteries, resulting in stiffening and narrowing of arteries.  Systems Biology
research points to over-activation of the deep brain as an instigating factor.

Trauma-Health Equity-
Neurobiology lens

Severity of Hypertension correlates with severity of adverse experiences, especially experience of Everyday Discrimination.  In the USA, black men are particularly at risk.   Research has shown that transition from normal blood pressure to hypertension in black boys can start at age 8.

NEW  Articles

Moody DLB, et al.  Everyday Discrimination Prospectively Predicts Blood Pressure Across 10 Years in Racially/Ethnically Diverse Midlife Women Ann Behavior Med.  Sept 2018.

Exposure to everyday discrimination predicts systolic and diastolic blood pressure, regardless of race or ethnicity, adjusting for known risk factors.

Hardy ST, et al.  Heterogeneity in Blood Pressure Transitions Over the Life Course:  Age-Specific Emergence of Racial/Ethnic and Sex Disparities in the United States.  JAMA Cardiology.  June 2017.  FREE FULL TEXT ARTICLE 

Tracked blood pressure readings in 17,000 people.  Found that young black men had twice the risk of hypertension compared to white youth.  The transition from normal blood pressure to hypertension in black youth started at age 8.

Rodriguez-Iturbe B et al.  Role of the Immune System in Hypertension Physiol Rev.  July 2017.  FREE FULL TEXT ARTICLE 

Updated review of physiologic mechanisms underlying hypertension:  infiltration of immune cells, oxidative stress, and stimulation of the infrarenal angiotensin system, dysfunctional vascular relaxation, and over-reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system.

CLASSIC  Articles

Solak Y, Afsar B, Vaziri ND, et al.  Hypertension as an autoimmune and inflammatory disease.  Hypertension Research (2016)   FREE FULL TEXT ARTICLE. 

Developments in the pathophysiology of hypertension with a focus on the oxidant stress-autoimmunity-inflammation interaction.

MORE Articles

Carnevale D and Lembo G.  Immunological Aspects of HypertensionHigh Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev   2016

McMaster  et.al.  Inflammation, Immunity and Hypertensive End-Organ Damage.  Circ Res  2015.  FREE FULL TEXT ARTICLE

Mathis KW  et.al.  Autoimmunity:  An underlying factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension.  Curr Hypertens Rep  2014.  FREE FULL TEXT ARTICLE

Tomfohr L  et.al.  Everyday Discrimination and Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping in Black and White Americans.  Psychosom  Med  2010.  FREE FULL TEXT ARTICLE